5th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiment U.S.

January 22, 1863 Newspaper Article about General Rousseau

Gen. Rousseau.– Referring to our gallant Rousseau, the Buffalo Express says: "In form and features he is probably the most conspicuous general in the American army. He is full six feet two inches in height, of heavy muscular frame, at the same time lithe and active. His face is fight all over it. He is very dark featured, big whiskered, eyes like coals of fire, and a nose decidedly of a pugilistic curve. He led the first regiment of Union soldiers into Louisville after the war began–the Louisville Legion. He did this against the protest of a large number of influential Unionists, who feared that the bloody scenes enacted at Baltimore would be reenacted there. Buthe told them that he was prepared for this issue, and should seek it. His regiment was not molested, but on the contrary was received with the most marked manifestations of gratification. It was a great blow for the Union in Kentucky. After that day Breckinridge, Clay, Preston, and other secessionists, deemed it valorous to get out of the state. General Rousseau has been made a Major General. He has won more honors and received smaller recognition than any other General in the Western army."

Brief Biography of General Lovell H. Rousseau,

Written by Major Alfred Pirtle for

The Union Regiments of Kentucky

MAJOR GENERAL LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU was born in Lincoln County, Ky., in 1818. He left home with a limited education, and acquired the French language while employed at daily labor. Studied law and began practice soon after reaching manhood, at Bloomfield, Ind., 1841. Became a member of the Indiana Legislature, 1844. Was in the Mexican War; captain of a company, distinguishing himself at Buena Vista. About 1850, removed to Louisville to become quite prominent at the bar and in politics. Served in both branches of the General Assembly; was in the Senate at the breaking out of the war.

In the summer of 1861, recruited a large force at Camp Joe Holt in Indiana, opposite Louisville. The 5th Ky. Infantry, a battery, a battalion of infantry that became part of the 6th Ky. Infantry, and two companies of cavalry, were enlisted at Camp Joe Holt.

On the advance of Buckner, from Bowling Green toward Louisville, September 17, 1861, Rousseau,with his command, crossed the river and moved to Lebanon Junction, preventing the anticipated move on Louisville. Was promoted to brigadier-general, October 1, 1861; served during the war in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama; made major-general for bravery at Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862; distinguished himself at Shiloh, Stone's River, and Chickamauga; in 1865 was elected to House of Representatives and left the field, took sides with the Democrats in Congress. In 1867, was sent to Alaska to take formal possession of the country in the name of the United States; was appointed upon his return to the command of the Gulf Department, and died suddenly in New Orleans, January 7, 1869.

Of an uncommonly handsome personal appearance, and tall, well-proportioned figure, he attracted attention at all times. His personal popularity was immense with the men of the army, whether of his own command or not, and his progress through the camps was usually accompanied with the cheers of whole regiments. He possessed great bravery and considerable executive ability.

From the Louisville Commercial 10 September 1895







At the encampment much interest will attach to the survivors of the old Louisville Legion, which did such valiant service in the civil war. Many, too, will be the reminiscences of the gallant leader and soldier, Col. Berry. William W. Berry was born in Harford county, Md., February 22, 1836. After receiving a very thorough and complete education, he commenced the practice of law in this city. Among the strong characteristics of the man were his strong and sturdy fidelity and loyalty to the Union. At the time in which he settled in Louisville the State was honeycombed with numberless secession organizations, which afterward developed into the Knights of the Golden Circle. Recognizing the dangerous tendencies of these societies, he, with other loyal men, began to organize Union clubs. This was a very dangerous undertaking, as the Southern sympathizers were very bitter toward any one who wished to thwart their plans and maintain the Union. These Union clubs became in time military companies, Col. Berry having command of a company of 100 members, bound together by oath to support the cause of the Union.

When the war broke out, the Governor of Kentucky, in response to Lincoln’s call for troops, replied; "Kentucky will not furnish a man or a dollar for the purpose of coercion." Gen. Rousseau was at once sent to Washington to explain the situation to Lincoln. As a result of this, Lincoln ordered that the Kentucky troops be supplied with arms and munitions by the United States Government. Thereupon the Louisville Legion, numbering 2,200 men, was recruited and equipped for service, going into camp in June, 1861. Thus it was that the Legion became a Union regiment, and it was due to the efforts of Berry and his associates that the State did not secede from the Union. While the State government was in the hands of the rebels, the Legislature was composed mostly of loyalists. The Legion was the nucleus of the Army of the Cumberland, and was one of the most famous organizations in the Union army. With Col. Berry in command, it was engaged in many of the most hotly-contested battles of the war, its commander being shot five times in several different engagements.

Every volume of the official record of the rebellion bearing on the Army of the Cumberland contains commendatory references to the Legion and its dashing commander. Especially brilliant was the magnificent charge of the Louisville Legion up the side of the mountain in the battle of Mission[ary] Ridge, where Col. Berry, after being shot form his horse at the head of his command, insisted on being replaced in the saddle by his soldiers, and, supported on either side, was the first to reach the top.

Soon after the war Col. Berry settled in Winchester, Ill, and in 1872 came to Quincy, Ill., where he practiced his profession until his death, May 6, 1895. Brilliant and talented, he steadily declined political preferment. He could have been Governor of Kentucky at the close of the war, and had he permitted his name to go before the nominating convention would have been nominated and elected Governor of Illinois. In 1888 he was elected commander of the Illinois Department of the Grand Army [of the Republic]. As Chairman of the commission appointed by Gov. Oglesby to locate the Illinois Builders’ and Sailors’ Home he gained the esteem of the people of the State generally. In 1888 he made campaign speeches for Harrison in Michigan, Indiana, New York and Illinois. This brought him into political prominence, papers both East and West advocating his nomination as Attorney General. But he refused to permit his name to be presented to President Harrison. In his chosen profession Col. Berry was one of the leading men of the West. Personally he was a man of commanding presence, more than six feet tall and straight as a soldier should be. All who came in contact with him thought of him as the typical Kentucky gentleman.

Lt. Col. John L. Treanor

5th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry

John L. Treanor was born in the County Tyrone, Ireland on December 17, 1826, and is a son of James D. and Catherine (Slevin) Treanor, natives of the above mentioned county; they immigrated to Philadelphia, Penn., when the subject of this sketch was three months old. His father was an officer in the Hibernia Greens, a company attached to the militia of the State; the militia was called upon to suppress an insurrection at the capital of the State – Harrisburg – by Governor Porter, sometime in the —30’s; the Hibernia Greens, with other companies from Philadelphia, responded to the call, two boys went with the company dressed in full uniform as color guides; our subject was one of these boys; there was no blood shed, but he commenced his military training quite young, and in after years in two wars, the war with Mexico and the rebellion of 1861, he made his mark as a brave soldier in action and generous to a fallen foeman. His father came to Louisville, Ky., in the fall of 1840, remained there a short time, and moved to Washington, Daviess County, Ind., purchased a farm, and went into the general store business. The subject of this sketch worked on the farm until the winter of 1845-46, when he left home and went back to Philadelphia, working his way on steamboats from Evanville, Ind., to Pittsburgh, Penn., from thence to Little York, Penn.; assisted in driving sheep and hogs, at 12 _ cents per diem and board; he managed to make the trip to Philadelphia in one month; he procured a position in the queensware house of Peter Wright & Sons, remained there until December, 1846; went to New York city on a visit to some relatives, joined the First Regiment of New York Volunteers, commanded by Col. Ward B. Burnett, as a private, was with his regiment at the siege of Vera Cruz. Gen. Shields, the commander of the brigade – consisting of the New York Volunteers and the South Carolina Volunteers – found his useful as a scout, and he and a young man named Barnes, the son of an eminent divine, in Philadelphia, had several hair breadth escapes together. Barnes was killed by the Mexicans in one of their scouting trips, about six miles from Vera Cruz – our subject managed to escape by hiding in a prickly pear thicket until night, and made his escape through the chaparral, and got back safely to his regiment. He was in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, the storming of the Castle of Chapultepec, and the fight at the Garita de Belen; was promoted color sergeant of the regiment after the battle of Cerro Gordo for meritorious conduct. He was one of the ninety soldiers who followed up the Mexican army under command of Gen. D. Twiggs, after Gen. Shields was shot down at Cerro Gordo; this small band of soldiers were at least two miles in the advance of the U. S. army, and the road was strewn for the distance with wounded and dead horses and their Mexican riders; they were called to a halt, when a couple of companies of U. S. dragoons took up the chase. After the Mexican war, in 1848 he returned to Louisville, Ky., engaged in business with Col. Joseph Metcalfe, the brewer. Married Miss Delia Morgan, October 2, 1849. They have four children – James L., Katie, Mary Agnes, and Julia. He belonged to the old volunteer fire department, being a member of the Relief, No. 3; we made captain of the No. 3 steam fire engine in 1859; appointed day policeman in 1860. He was firm in his duty as an officer of the peace. In 1861, when Ft. Sumter was fired upon, he and six other stanch Unionists organized the Union clubs in Louisville; form this small beginning they soon numbered in the thousands. After they knew their strength they procured arms and organized home guard companies. Our subject was elected captain of the First Ward Home Guard, numbering 160 members. He resigned his position in the home guards and raised a company for the war for Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau’s regiment, the Louisville Legion. They went into Camp Joe Holt, Indiana, on the 1st day of July, 1861. The regiment was mustered into service 1050 strong, September 9, 1861; mustered out of the service September 14, 1864, with 297 men. His regiment participated in all of the following battles: Shiloh, Murfreesboro [Stones River], Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Brown’s ferry, Orchard Knob, Missionary Ridge, at which place they claim their colors were first on the ridge near Gen. Bragg’s headquarters. They also participated at the battles of Dallas, Ga., Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and the siege of Atlanta. After the war he was appointed to a position in the Internal Revenue service as Assistant Assessor and U. S. Gauger. He was dismissed the service May 15, 1886, for being an offensive partisan. He is a stanch Republican. He was mustered out as lieutenant-colonel of the Louisville Legion. His superior officers speak of him as a brave and valuable officer during the war. Below find a few extracts from testimonials in his possession, which we were permitted to use in this sketch.

Extract from Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau:

"Col. Treanor joined my command in 1861, and served with me during the war. No braver, truer, or more honest man lives.

"Lovell H. Rousseau,

"Maj-Gen. U. S. A."

Extract from Gen. R. W. Johnson:

"For a long time Col. Treanor was under my command, and I found him a brave and gallant soldier, a man of excellent habits, intelligent in the exercise of his duties, careful in his attention to his men and their wants, and in fact a thorough solder without a fault. The loyal people of Kentucky owe him a debt of gratitude which it will be difficult for them to repay. R. W. Johnson,

"Bvt, Maj.-Gen. U. S. A.

Extract from Maj.-Gen. John A. McClernand:

"Springfield, Ill., June 17, 1868.

"To whom it may concern:

"Learning that an official position in the revenue service would be agreeable to John L. Treanor, Esq., late Lieut.-Col. Of the 5th Kentucky Vol. Inft., I eagerly embrace the opportunity to bear my testimony to his high merit as a gentleman and a soldier. His conduct on the great day at Shiloh marked him not only a brave and faithful officer but a hero in the loftiest sense of the term. There is nothing within my power I would not do for him. A kindness rendered to him would be viewed by me as something more than a favor extended to myself; it is such men who deserve to be honored and encouraged for the good of their example. He is one of the men upon whom I would have no fear to stake my life and my honor. I trust the ultimate recipient of this letter, whomsoever he may be, will respond in the same spirit inspiring it. By so doing he will lastingly oblige its author. James A. McClernand."

Excerpt from Maj.-Gen. A. Mc. D. McCook:

"December 28, ’86.

"I am always glad to hear from any of the old Second Division of the army of the Ohio and Cumberland, and especially from one of the Louisville Legion, for a more gallant set of officers and men were never mustered into any service. It is still the more gratifying to hear from one of those officers who has such a gallant record as that possessed by you, and gained too upon many of the bloodiest battles fought during the rebellion. * * * May God bless you in your old age, your children and children’s children. No better heritage could be left them than your glorious record of the war.

"Sincerely your old comrade and commander

"A. Mc D. McCook.

"Bvt. Maj.-Gen’l U. S. Army."

The 5th Regiment Louisville Legion

Extract from an article in the June 21, 1908 issue of the Louisville Anzeiger
Written by Victor Stein,
(former Commissary Sergeant, 6th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiment)

This well known Regiment was recruited here in Louisville and ordered to Camp Joseph Holt. This camp was established by General L. H. Rousseau on the Indiana side of the Ohio, just below Jeffersonville, as Kentucky at that time, as a neutral state, could not tolerate that troops be organized on her soil. This neutrality, however, did not last very long. General Rousseau came to the aid of the sore pressed people of Louisville in that he with is troops marched against the Rebels and put them to rout. After the railroad bridge of Rolling Ford was burned, the SouthernGeneral Buckner withdrew and never returned.

The Regiment took part in the various major battles under Buell, Rosecrans, Thomas, and Sherman, and was praised and became famous on account of its bravery. The Legion was at first known as the 3rd Kentucky Infantry Regiment, but was rebaptized later by Governor Bramlette the 5th Infantry Regiment, and on September 9, 1861 was mustered into the Union service. On September 14, 1864, after honorable service, it was mustered out and the men returned to their homes. The Regiment had hard times, but the men were always willing and true to the flag, which they had sworn to serve. This flag was given to the regiment by Mrs. Josephine F. Speed and is now found in the state’s archives in Frankfort.

The Regiment’s band was made up of the following members: Simon Boesser and Christ Haupt, bandleaders, Joseph Einsiedler, O. Guenter, B. Klein, Charles Oswald, John Ruef, Richard Achwinger, Phil Seibert, John Spillman, Phil Schueble, John Schoettlin, Joseph von Berg, Jeb. Walter, Frank Dolfinger, Henry Eckert, Henry Hepper, and Eugene Jomini. This band was discharged from the Regiment and later from it was formed the Haupt Seebahc’sohe Orchestra.

The German officers were: F. M. Fresche, Assistant Quartermaster; Henry Gassen, 1st Lieutenant; Adam Kraher, 2nd Lieutenant; August Schweitzer, Captain; Stephen Lindenfelser, Captain; John G. Scheible, 1st Lieutenant; Adolph Reutlinger, 2nd Lieutenant; and Frank Diessel, 2nd Lieutenant.

As was said before, General L. H. Rousseau set up Camp Joseph Holt on the Indiana side of the river and there collected recruits from Kentucky, until there were quartered there 2,500 men. From these men there were formed the 5th Kentucky Infantry Regiment, the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, and Stone’s 1st Artillery Battery. With this army Rousseau crossed the river and marched, despite strong advice to the contrary, on August 30, 1861 in parade through Louisville. Banners were carried, “Louisville is my home and I shall go there by all means, just to show the Rebels that we are watching them.”

After the 5th Regiment was mustered out, there were about 100 of the old soldiers who reenlisted and took part in the battle of Nashville, December 15, 1864. Those who remained were then mustered out on July 25, 1865. General Sherman said of the 5th Regiment, “No single body of men can claim more honor for the great result than the officers of the Louisville Legion of Kentucky.”


Dr. Enos S. Swain


5th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiment U.S.

Enos S. Swain, M. D., was born in 1836, near Charlestown, N. H., a son of Dr. John Swain and Mary E. Stevens. Dr.John Swain moved to Kentucky about 1840, and located at New Castle in Henry County, but after a year’s residence there moved to Ballardsville in Oldham County. Dr. Enos S. Swain was reared in Ballardsville, and educated at Centre College, Danville. After his literary course he began reading medicine with his father, and a year later, 1858, entered the Kentucky Medical School, from which he graduated in 1860. He then practiced for a year with Dr. S. W. Colman.

Dr. Swain mustered into the Fifth Kentucky Volunteer Infantry (the Louisville Legion") as assistant surgeon on September 9,1861, and was appointed surgeon of the regiment on October 1, 1862.. After his return from the army in September, 1864, he attended the Bellevue Medical Hospital, N. Y. In the fall of 1865 he began practice at Smithfield. Dr. Swain was a member of the Presbyterian Church and of the Masonic fraternity. He owned about 260 acres of land. He married Bittie Michell of Henry County in November1868. The names of the children born to Dr. Enos S. Swain are Henry E., Enos M., John, Paul and Mary E. Politically Dr. Swain was a Republican.


Capt. August Schweitzer, Company E, age 42 at enlistment,  resigned due to disability November 24, 1862. Died Louisville, Kentucky, April 6, 1891, buried St. Louis Cemetery in Louisville. His son George served as a musician in Company F of the 5th Kentucky.

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